is one of the most promising sectors of the economy of Kazakhstan,
as the demand for quality food in Kazakhstan significantly exceeds
their supply. In recent years, this industry has been actively
developing, so we will consider in this article the features and
prospects of agriculture and the processing industry in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan has a fantastic potential for
agricultural development! In the photo - endless fields in
Kazakhstan. Modern technologies make it possible to obtain
high yields on those fields that have never been cultivated
Business consulting and project
management services for agriculture and industry in
Kazakhstan has a developed
agriculture and is a major exporter of grain and other
agricultural products. This is one of the few countries in
the world with a high potential for grain exports!
A brief History of the AgricultureDevelopment in Kazakhstann
The communists and the Soviet
Union caused very heavy damage to the agriculture of
Agricultural land in Kazakhstan was depleted during the
"great development of virgin lands" in Soviet times. In
fact, there was no development, in fact it was only
The plowing of the Kazakh steppes
during the "development of virgin lands" led to dust storms
and the destruction of the fertile layer in the fields of
those that were plowed
Also, Kazakhstan lost a lot of
fertile steppe lands due to nuclear tests at the
Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. Millions of hectares were
contaminated with radiation due to the drift of radioactive
The consequences of those
dark times, Kazakhstan feels today.
But despite this, nature
is being cleansed and restored, and Kazakhstan's agriculture
is actively developing now!
We can do an
agronomic audit and find out the factors that reduce yields in your
conditions! As well as provide recommendations to improve
profitability and efficiency!
Our services allow not only to get high
additional profit, but also to increase the efficiency of the entire
business. The first step to successfully managing of an agricultural
business is a technical audit!
Contact us now to increase the efficiency and profitability
of the agricultural business
What kind of agriculture is in Kazakhstan?
Description of agriculture in Kazakhstan
Thanks to the use of modern
machines and technologies, now Kazakhstan has significantly
increased agricultural production since the restoration of
its independence! In the photo - modern equipment in the
Kargalinsky district of the Aktobe region
The export of agricultural
products since the restoration of Kazakhstan's independence
has increased significantly and, according to some sources,
is, depending on the year, 3-5 billion dollars!
But despite this, there is
still a very significant potential for growth in production
and profitability of the agrarian sector in Kazakhstan!
Contact us to increase the potential of the agricultural
sector of Kazakhstan!
The agricultural sector of the
economy in Kazakhstan is growing rapidly, but despite this,
the share of agriculture in Kazakhstan's GDP is, according
to various estimates, from 4.7 to 8% of GDP. Grain is one of
the main export products of Kazakhstan.
Map of agricultural land in Kazakhstan. The total area of
Kazakhstan is 2,725,000 km². According to the most
optimistic estimates, agricultural land makes up 846,000
km², or only 26% of the country's total area. Of these,
about 230,000 km² are sown! Thus, the sown area is only 8.4%
of the total area of Kazakhstan. And only a very small
percentage of these lands are used effectively and give a
Most of the land (70-95%) in
Kazakhstan is under the cultivation of various crops and
Compared to other
agricultural countries, in Kazakhstan only a very small
percentage of the land is used for agriculture, especially
this percentage is higher in the north of the country.
About 70% of agricultural
lands in Kazakhstan are uncultivated - these are "wild"
Agriculture is one of the developed sectors of the
economy of Kazakhstan
The agricultural sector of Kazakhstan produced in 2018:
wheat 13.9 million tons (14th place in the world by
size of production)
barley 3.9 million tons
(11th largest producer in the world)
potatoes 3.8 million tons (20th
place in the world)
watermelons 1.2 million tons (12th producer in the
oil flax seeds 933 thousand tons
(Kazakhstan is the largest
producer of oil flax in the world)
melons 893 thousand tons
(5th producer in the world)
corn 862 thousand tons
sunflower seeds 847
thousand tons (13th place in the world)
onion 813 thousand tons
tomatoes 765 thousand tons
carrots 566 thousand
cabbage 546 thousand
sugar beet 504 thousand tons of , which is used for
the production of sugar and ethanol
rice 482 thousand tons
Kazakhstan achieved a record
grain harvest of 26.9 million tons in 2011, surpassing the
previous record of 21 million tons in 2009. In 2022,
Kazakhstan produced 23 million tons of grain.
Results of 2022/23 MY - the grain harvest in
Kazakhstan reached a record level for the decade of 23
million tons (+27% compared to 2021/22 MY), while the wheat
harvest increased by 30%. This is reported by the Ministry
of Agriculture of Kazakhstan.
Export of the agro-industrial complex of Kazakhstan
At the end of 2021, the volume of exports of agricultural
products from Kazakhstan increased by 14.8% and amounted to
$3.8 billion (in 2020 - $3.3 billion).
Export grain terminal
on the Caspian Sea, in the port of Aktau
In the structure of exports of agricultural
products from Kazakhstan are traditionally dominated by:
food and fodder wheat, as well as mixtures of
cereals - 5.7 million tons for $1,425 million
(37.5% of total exports)
- barley - 0.8 million tons for $165
- oil flax seeds - 333.6 thousand tons
for 226.6 million dollars (6%)
- wheat flour - 1.5 million tons for
441 million dollars (12%)
- sunflower oil - 97 thousand
tons for 116.7 million dollars (3%)
- cotton - 63 thousand tons for 123.6
million dollars (3%).
exports 6-9 million tons of grain and flour. Through the use
modern technology and
consulting, production and export can be increased by
Trends in exports of agricultural products
- growth in exports of grain crops
- growth in
exports of oil flax seeds and sunflower seeds
growth in exports of processed products (pasta, linseed and
- creation of new capacities for
export and logistics
- replacement of sales markets
from the Russian Federation to China and other countries of
In 2023, Kazakhstan's trade with China significantly
exceeded trade with the Russian Federation - and this trend
is significantly increasing due to a significant increase in
the risks of trade with the Russian Federation.
The same is happening with the export of agricultural
products from Kazakhstan - many traders are reorienting from
local markets to global food markets.
The climate of Kazakhstan and agriculture.
Agro-climatic zones of Kazakhstan
Nature determines what can be
grown in Kazakhstan.
In Kazakhstan, the sharply
continental climate it is a zone of cold and dry climate.
Kazakhstan is a country of very beautiful nature and clean
air, it is an ideal place to find your spirit and
communicate with pure nature. Kazakhstan is one of the most
beautiful countries in the World because of its amazingly
beautiful lakes and mountains, steppes and deserts, rivers
and high hills. Kazakhstan ranks ninth in terms of territory
in the world. However, most of the land remains untouched...
In winter, very cold and dry air from Siberia often comes
in. Therefore, Kazakhstan has very severe winters, and the
temperature in winter sometimes drops below -45°C! During
this winter strong wind blow and blown off snow from the
fields. Under such conditions, winter crops cannot
overwinter. In the photo - fields in winter in the Maisky
district, Pavlodar region
Kazakhstan is very hot and dry and very windy. Therefore,
the main factor limiting the yield of spring crops is the
lack of moisture. There is often a very hot and dry wind.
The climate of Kazakhstan is getting drier and hotter! In
the photo - the death of sunflower crops due to drought
In spring, the steppe in Kazakhstan blooms, this is the
season when there is enough moisture! But this period is
very short! And the doges may not be until autumn
Map of natural zones of Kazakhstan (according to UNDP).
Natural conditions determine agricultural production in Kazakhstan.
Classical agriculture is concentrated in the steppe zone and foothill
areas, as well as in the floodplains of the rivers of Kazakhstan
Map of the agro-climatic regions of
Kazakhstan (according to the Ministry of Agriculture of Kazakhstan
Author: Beck, H.E., Zimmermann, N. E., McVicar, T. R.,
Vergopolan, N., Berg, A., & Wood, E. F.
Climate of Kazakhstan (according
to modern international classification). Climate map of
Kazakhstan. Most of Kazakhstan's agriculture is located in
the BSk (cold steppe) zone. The amount of precipitation is
about 250-300 mm per year, the largest amount of which falls
in the winter. During the growing season, about 100 mm of
precipitation falls. The average temperature for the year is
less than 18°С
Precipitation in Semey. In Semey, the dry period occurs in
January, February, March, April, May, August, September,
October and December. On average, July is the wettest month
with 32.0 mm of precipitation. On average, January is the
driest month with 14.0 mm of precipitation. The average
annual rainfall is: 264.0 mm. The amount of precipitation
during the growing season (April - August) 100-130 mm
Precipitation in Astana. In Astana, the dry period occurs in
January, February, March, April, May, August, September,
October and December. On average, July is the wettest month
with 64.9 mm of precipitation. On average, January is the
driest month with 13.7 mm of precipitation. The average
annual rainfall is: 356.3 mm. Precipitation during the
growing season (April-August) 194.9 mm
The climate in Kazakhstan is favorable for growing only
Thus, the main factor limiting the
yield in Kazakhstan is the lack of moisture!
In Kazakhstan, there are certain natural factors
that limit agricultural production:
very dry climate
lack of soil fertility, rapid
drying of the soil, the need for irrigation
frosts occur in late spring
and early autumn
In general, the
climate in Kazakhstan is favorable for agriculture!!
Soils of Kazakhstan
Most of the soils suitable for
agriculture in Kazakhstan are Mollisiols. And in the desert
zone, this is Aridsoils (USDA)
Soil map of Kazakhstan. Soil types in Kazakhstan. Basic
soils - Mollisols и Aridisols
The soil profile in East Kazakhstan is a transitional type
between Mollisiols and Aridsoils. Zharma region, soil
profile. The soil is clayey and very compacted. The humus
layer is about 20 cm. There is no moisture at a depth of
more than 20-23 cm. Below is clay interspersed with salt,
sand and small stones
Soil profile in Northern Kazakhstan. Maisky district. The
cut to a depth of 120 cm. The soil is sandy with an
admixture of clay and strongly compacted. The humus layer is
about 20 cm. Below is a mixture of sand and clay
interspersed with salts, sand and small stones
Precipitation map of Kazakhstan. In the steppe zone (most of
Kazakhstan) - the amount of precipitation is about 250-300
mm per year, the largest amount of which will fall in the
winter. During the growing season, about 100 mm of
precipitation falls. For example, the amount of
precipitation in the Maisky district is about 250-300 mm per
year, with a tendency to reduce the annual amount of
precipitation! In Zharma district - up to 300-350 mm per
year (not in all years)
What branches of agriculture are developed
Animal husbandry (horses, cows, sheep)
Crop and feed production
Poultry farming (chicken, eggs)
What is grown in Kazakhstan?
The most important agricultural crop in
Kazakhstan is spring wheat, which is the main agricultural
export product. In the photo - a field with spring wheat in
the Kargalinsky district of the Aktobe region. Wheat grain
production has tripled - from 6-7 million tons in the 90s
and up to 16-17 million tons in 2022! And now Kazakhstan is
a major producer and exporter of grain!
Natural conditions make it
possible to grow in Kazakhstan mainly spring wheat,
including hard wheat (durum), which is more valuable and is
in very high demand on the international market. Kazakhstan
is one of the few countries with an optimal climate for this
Winter wheat is
practically not grown in Kazakhstan, since most often it
freezes in winter. But a small number of fields in Southern
Kazakhstan, in the foothills and in Northern Kazakhstan are
still suitable for growing winter wheat. Although the risks
of freezing every 3-5 years are very significant!
There is a
lot of speculation about the successful cultivation of
winter wheat in Kazakhstan. But the fact remains that it is
possible to get good harvests of this crop only in the
southern regions of Kazakhstan, on the border with
Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and in the foothills, where the
climate is milder.
Smaller areas are occupied in
Kazakhstan under: cotton, sugar
beet, oil flax, rice, safflower, camelina, fodder lupine,
alfalfa, chickpeas, rapeseed, etc.
Oilseeds are widely grown
in Kazakhstan - sunflower, safflower, camelina, oilseed flax
and spring rapeseed. These crops are well combined in crop
rotation with wheat and barley. Therefore, the areas under
these crops are expanding.
Kazakhstan ranks first in the
world in the cultivation and production of oilseed
safflower! On average, 170-180 thousand tons are produced
annually in Kazakhstan. oilseeds of safflower. In the photo
- a field with oilseed safflower in the Kargaly district of
the Aktobe region
Kazakhstan ranks first in the
world in the production of oil flax seeds! Every year
Kazakhstan produces about 1.1 million tons of oilseeds and
competes with Canada for the first place. But Kazakhstan has
more significant potential in the production of this crop
Areas under cotton and sugar
beets are gradually decreasing in Kazakhstan.
From vegetable crops in
Kazakhstan carrots, onions, potatoes, cabbage, as well as a
small amount of other vegetables are grown.
greens vegetables and strawberries
are grown in greenhouses in Kazakhstan.
From horticultural crops
in Kazakhstan, apple orchards and some plum orchards are
grown. The best regions for growing apples are the foothills
and southern regions of Kazakhstan.
Technical hemp is grown
from industrial crops in Kazakhstan.
From gourds in Kazakhstan
produce - watermelon, melon, zucchini, pumpkin. Of the
legumes in Kazakhstan, they grow peas, beans, lupins and
Sowing beans on drip irrigation in Kazakhstan. Italian
varieties of beans were used
Grapes are grown in Kazakhstan. Kazakh grapes are produced
in the mountains east of Almaty.
Forage crops in Kazakhstan are grown - forage grasses